Scientific Operations

                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

          I. COMMANDS
          ar(I) ..........  archive and library maintainer
          as(I) ...............................  assembler
          bas(I) ..................................  basic
          bc(I)   arbitrary precision interactive language
          cat(I) ..................  concatenate and print
          cc(I) ..............................  C compiler
          cdb(I) .............................  C debugger
          chdir(I) .............  change working directory
          chmod(I) ..........................  change mode
          cmp(I) ......................  compare two files
          comm(I) .......  print lines common to two files
          cp(I) ....................................  copy
          cref(I) ..........  make cross reference listing
          date(I) ................  print and set the date
          db(I) ...................................  debug
          dc(I) .........................  desk calculator
          dd(I) .................  convert and copy a file
          diff(I) ..........  differential file comparator
          dsw(I) ...................  delete interactively
          du(I) ....................  summarize disk usage
          echo(I) .......................  echo arguments
          ed(I) .............................  text editor
          eqn(I) ....................  typeset mathematics
          exit(I) ................  terminate command file
          fc(I) ........................  Fortran compiler
          file(I) ...................  determine file type
          find(I) ............................  find files
          goto(I) ......................  command transfer
          grep(I) ...........  search a file for a pattern
          if(I) .....................  conditional command
          kill(I) ...................  terminate a process
          ld(I) .............................  link editor
          ln(I) .............................  make a link
          login(I) .......................  sign onto UNIX
          ls(I) ..............  list contents of directory
          mail(I) .........  send mail to designated users
          man(I) .........  run off section of UNIX manual
          mesg(I) ...............  permit or deny messages
          mkdir(I) .....................  make a directory
          mv(I) ...................  move or rename a file
          neqn(I) .......  typeset mathematics on terminal
          newgrp(I) ...............  log in to a new group
          nice(I) .........  run a command at low priority
          nm(I) .........................  print name list
          nohup(I) ......  run a command immune to hangups
          nroff(I) ..........................  format text
          od(I) ..............................  octal dump
          opr(I) .........................  off line print
          passwd(I) ...............  change login password
          pfe(I) ...............  print floating exception
          pr(I) ..............................  print file
          prof(I) ..................  display profile data
          ps(I) ..........................  process status
          pwd(I) .................  working directory name
          rc(I) .........................  Ratfor compiler
          rev(I) ................  reverse lines of a file
          rm(I) ...................  remove (unlink) files
          rmdir(I) .....................  remove directory
          roff(I) ...........................  format text
          sh(I) .............  shell (command interpreter)
          shift(I) ...............  adjust Shell arguments
          size(I) ................  size of an object file
          sleep(I) ....  suspend execution for an interval
          sort(I) ...................  sort or merge files
          spell(I) .................  find spelling errors
          split(I) .............  split a file into pieces
          strip(I) ...  remove symbols and relocation bits
          stty(I) ................  set typewriter options
          tee(I) ...........................  pipe fitting
          time(I) ........................  time a command
          tp(I) ..........  manipulate DECtape and magtape
          tr(I) ...........................  transliterate
          troff(I) ..........................  format text
          tty(I) ....................  get typewriter name
          typo(I) ...................  find possible typos
          uniq(I) .......  report repeated lines in a file
          wait(I) ...........  await completion of process
          wc(I) ..............................  word count
          who(I) ...................  who is on the system
          write(I) ................  write to another user
          yacc(I) .........  yet another compiler-compiler

          II. SYSTEM CALLS
          intro(II) ........  introduction to system calls
          break(II) ..............  change core allocation
          chdir(II) ............  change working directory
          chmod(II) .................  change mode of file
          chown(II) ....  change owner and group of a file
          close(II) ........................  close a file
          creat(II) ...................  create a new file
          csw(II) .................  read console switches
          dup(II) .....  duplicate an open file descriptor
          exec(II) .......................  execute a file
          exit(II) ....................  terminate process
          fork(II) ....................  spawn new process
          fstat(II) .............  get status of open file
          getgid(II) ..........  get group identifications
          getpid(II) .........  get process identification
          getuid(II) ...........  get user identifications
          gtty(II) ................  get typewriter status
          indir(II) ................  indirect system call
          kill(II) .............  send signal to a process
          link(II) .......................  link to a file
          mknod(II) ..  make a directory or a special file
          mount(II) ...................  mount file system
          nice(II) .................  set program priority
          open(II) ..........  open for reading or writing
          pipe(II) .......  create an interprocess channel
          profil(II) .............  execution time profile
          ptrace(II) ......................  process trace
          read(II) .......................  read from file
          seek(II) ..............  move read/write pointer
          setgid(II) ...............  set process group ID
          setuid(II) ................  set process user ID
          signal(II) ............  catch or ignore signals
          sleep(II) .........  stop execution for interval
          stat(II) ......................  get file status
          stime(II) ............................  set time
          stty(II) ...............  set mode of typewriter
          sync(II) ...................  update super-block
          time(II) ....................  get date and time
          times(II) ...................  get process times
          umount(II) ...............  dismount file system
          unlink(II) .............  remove directory entry
          wait(II) ........  wait for process to terminate
          write(II) .....................  write on a file



          III. SUBROUTINES
          abort(III) ..............  generate an IOT fault
          abs(III) .......................  absolute value
          alloc(III) .....................  core allocator
          atan(III) ................  arc tangent function
          atof(III) ...........  convert ASCII to floating
          atoi(III) ............  convert ASCII to integer
          crypt(III) ..................  password encoding
          ctime(III) .....  convert date and time to ASCII
          ecvt(III) ...................  output conversion
          end(III) ............  last locations in program
          exp(III) .................  exponential function
          floor(III) ........  floor and ceiling functions
          fmod(III) ............  floating modulo function
          fptrap(III) ........  floating point interpreter
          gamma(III) .................  log gamma function
          getarg(III)   get command arguments from Fortran
          getc(III) ......................  buffered input
          getchar(III) ...................  read character
          getpw(III) ..................  get name from UID
          hmul(III) ..................  high-order product
          ierror(III) ..............  catch Fortran errors
          ldiv(III) .......................  long division
          locv(III) ..............  long output conversion
          log(III) ....................  natural logarithm
          monitor(III) ........  prepare execution profile
          nargs(III) .....................  argument count
          nlist(III) .........  get entries from name list
          perror(III) .............  system error messages
          pow(III) ..............  floating exponentiation
          printf(III) ...................  formatted print
          putc(III) .....................  buffered output
          putchar(III) ..................  write character
          qsort(III) .......................  quicker sort
          rand(III) .............  random number generator
          reset(III) .............  execute non-local goto
          setfil(III) .........  specify Fortran file name
          sin(III) ..............  trigonometric functions
          sqrt(III) ................  square root function
          ttyn(III) ...  return name of current typewriter

          IV. SPECIAL FILES
          cat(IV) .............  phototypesetter interface
          dc(IV) .........  DC-11 communications interface
          dh(IV) .......  DH-11 communications multiplexer
          dn(IV) ....................  DN-11 ACU interface
          dp(IV) .........  DP-11 201 data-phone interface
          hp(IV) ............  RH-11/RP04 moving-head disk
          hs(IV) ....  RH11/RS03-RS04 fixed-head disk file
          ht(IV) ..........  RH-11/TU-16 magtape interface
          kl(IV) ..  KL-11 or DL-11 asynchronous interface
          lp(IV) ...........................  line printer
          mem(IV) ...........................  core memory
          pc(IV) ..........  PC-11 paper tape reader/punch
          rf(IV) .........  RF11/RS11 fixed-head disk file
          rk(IV) ..............  RK-11/RK03 (or RK05) disk
          rp(IV) ............  RP-11/RP03 moving-head disk
          tc(IV) .....................  TC-11/TU56 DECtape
          tm(IV) ..........  TM-11/TU-10 magtape interface
          tty(IV) ..........  general typewriter interface

          V. FILE FORMATS AND CONVENTIONS
          a.out(V) .....  assembler and link editor output
          ar(V) ...........  archive (library) file format
          ascii(V) ...........  map of ASCII character set
          core(V) .............  format of core image file
          dir(V) ..................  format of directories
          dump(V) ..........  incremental dump tape format
          fs(V) ............  format of file system volume
          greek(V)   graphics for extended TTY-37 type-box
          group(V) ...........................  group file
          mtab(V) .............  mounted file system table
          passwd(V) .......................  password file
          tabs(V) .........................  set tab stops
          tp(V) ....................  DEC/mag tape formats
          ttys(V) ........  typewriter initialization data
          utmp(V) ......................  user information
          wtmp(V) ....................  user login history

          VI. USER MAINTAINED PROGRAMS
          azel(VI) ................  satellite predictions
          bj(VI) .................  the game of black jack
          cal(VI) ........................  print calendar
          chess(VI) ...................  the game of chess
          col(VI) .............  filter reverse line feeds
          cubic(VI) .......  three dimensional tic-tac-toe
          factor(VI) .  discover prime factors of a number
          fed(VI) ...............  edit form letter memory
          form(VI) ................  form letter generator
          graph(VI) ........................  draw a graph
          gsi(VI)   interpret extended character set on GSI terminal
          m6(VI) .........  general purpose macroprocessor
          moo(VI) .........................  guessing game
          plot(VI) .....................  graphics filters
          primes(VI)   print all primes larger than somewhat
          quiz(VI) ..................  test your knowledge
          sky(VI) ....................  obtain ephemerides
          sno(VI) ....................  Snobol interpreter
          speak(VI) ............  word to voice translator
          spline(VI) ...........  interpolate smooth curve
          tbl(VI) ......  format tables for nroff or troff
          tmg(VI) .....................  compiler-compiler
          ttt(VI) ...............  the game of tic-tac-toe
          units(VI) ..................  conversion program
          wump(VI) ..........  the game of hunt-the-wumpus

          VII. USER MAINTAINED SUBROUTINES
          cr(VII) ......................  coroutine scheme
          ms(VII) .....  macros for formatting manuscripts
          plot(VII) ..................  graphics interface
          salloc(VII)   string allocation and manipulation

          VIII. SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
          ac(VIII) .....................  login accounting
          bproc(VIII) ...................  boot procedures
          chgrp(VIII) ......................  change group
          chown(VIII) ......................  change owner
          clri(VIII) .......................  clear i-node
          crash(VIII)   what to do when the system crashes
          cron(VIII) .......................  clock daemon
          dcheck(VIII)   file system directory consistency check
          df(VIII) ............................  disk free
          dpd(VIII) ...................  data phone daemon
          dump(VIII) .......  incremental file system dump
          getty(VIII) ...............  set typewriter mode
          glob(VIII) .........  generate command arguments
          icheck(VIII)   file system storage consistency check
          init(VIII) .....  process control initialization
          lpd(VIII) .................  line printer daemon
          mkfs(VIII) ............  construct a file system
          mknod(VIII) ................  build special file
          mount(VIII) .................  mount file system
          ncheck(VIII) ....  generate names from i-numbers
          restor(VIII) ..  incremental file system restore
          sa(VIII) .....................  Shell accounting
          su(VIII) ...............  become privileged user
          sync(VIII) .............  update the super block
          umount(VIII) .............  dismount file system
          update(VIII)   periodically update the super block
          wall(VIII) .................  write to all users